Giant of French intellectual life known for his heavyweight journalism and series of documentaries about the Holocaust
Claude Lanzmann, the French film-maker and journalist who was best known for the exhaustive Holocaust documentary Shoah, has died aged 92. Lanzmanns family confirmed his death to Le Monde, though its cause has not been revealed.
The son of Russian Jewish immigrants to France, Lanzmann was born in Paris in 1925, and as a teenager fought in the resistance before studying philosophy at the Sorbonne after the war. After a period teaching in West Germany in the late 40s, he returned to France and, after meeting Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre, he was invited to join the board of Les Temps Modernes, the influential journal they had founded in 1945. He embarked on a passionate relationship with de Beauvoir, 18 years his senior, and they lived together from 1952 to 1959. In 1986, Lanzmann became chief editor of Les Temps Modernes on de Beauvoirs death and remained in the post for the rest of his life.
As a journalist, Lanzmann fully engaged with the political ferment of the 1950s and 60s, writing lengthy and significant articles about Israel, North Korea and Tibet, and was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of the 121, denouncing French government actions in Algeria.
Lanzmanns film-making grew out of his journalistic and intellectual preoccupations. His first documentary Pourquoi Israel? (Why Israel?) began as a series of interviews he conducted for a French TV show; it was his attempt to answer the anti-colonialist broadsides of his fellow leftwing intellectuals and grapple with what he called the complex Israeli reality. It was released in 1973 as the country reached its 25th anniversary.
He began filming Shoah in 1974, filming interviews with death camp survivors all over the world. He told the Guardian he had resisted visiting the site of the Nazi camps until 1978. When I saw the village of Treblinka still existed, that people who were witnesses to everything still existed, that there was a normal train station, the bomb that I was exploded. I started to shoot. At one point, Lanzmann was attacked while attempting a covert interview, and was hospitalised for a month. With no archive footage, and originally planned as a two-hour film, the monumental 560-minute work emerged in 1985, before being screened in Israel a year later.
Shoahs impact was felt far and wide. Karen Pollock, chief executive of the Holocaust Educational Trust, said: [Shoah] has been hailed by many as the greatest documentary of all time, but more importantly it made those who watched it a witness to the truth through survivor and perpetrator testimony. Lanzmann played a pivotal role in keeping the memory and truth of the Holocaust alive. Shoah was ground-breaking in the 1980s and still is to this day. The film and his work educated so many around the world and for that we owe him a great debt.
Lanzmann would later cull a number of feature-length films from the 350 hours of footage: including Sobibor, October 14, 1943, 4 p.m. about a partially successful uprising against the camp guards; The Karski Report, about a Polish resistance fighter who attempted to make the allied command aware of the horrific massacres occurring in Poland; and The Last of the Unjust, an interview with Benjamin Murmelstein, a rabbi who was one of the Jewish administrators of the Theresienstadt ghetto.
Lanzmanns final film, Napalm, which premiered at Cannes in 2017, drew on his earlier visit to North Korea as a young journalist, in which he revealed his brief affair with a North Korean nurse. He subsequently completed a four-part TV series, The Four Sisters, again examining the experiences of Holocaust survivors.
In 2011 Lanzmann was made grand officer of the Legion dHonneur, and in 2013 was awarded an honorary Golden Bear by the Berlin film festival.
Lanzmann was married three times: to actor Judith Magre (divorcing in 1971), German writer Angelika Schrobsdorff (divorcing in 1990), and epidemiologist Dominique Petithory (who he married in 1995). Lanzmann had two children, Angelique and Felix; the latter died aged 23 in 2017 from cancer.